1) If we divide users of ratios into short term lenders, long term lenders, and stockholders, which ratios would each group be most interested I, and for what reasons
2) Explain how the Du Pont system of analysis breaks down return on assets.† Also explain how it breaks down return on stockholderís equity.
††††††††††† Profit margin is Net Income / Sales
††††††††††† Asset Turnover is Sales / Total Assets
††††††††††† Return on Assets is Profit Margin * Asset turnover
††††††††††† Return on equity is return on assets / (1- debt / Assets)
††††††††††† The Du Pont system stresses that a satisfactory return on assets may be achieved through high profit margin or rapid turnover of assets or both.† With the Du Pont system the use of debt is also important as this affects the return on equity.
3) If the accounts receivable turnover ratio is decreasing, what will be happening to the average collection period?
††††††††††† The average collection period will be getting longer.
4) What advantage does the fixed charge coverage ratio offer over simply using times interest earned?
Fixed charge coverage measures the firms ability to meet all the fixed obligations rather than just interest.† The assumption is that failure to meet any financial obligation will endanger the firm. We need to see if they are safely coverered.
5) Is there any validity in rule of thumb ratios for all corporations, for example, a current ratio of 2 to one or debt to assets of 50%?
These can be useful to a certain extent. For example 2to one current ratio means that you should be able to pay current liabilities as they come due.† However this would be more useful if you also had some information on inventory turnover and even better on Accounts Receivable turnover.†† However it is best to make comparison to industry benchmarks and even better than this compare the trends of the business over time with the trends for other businesses over the same time frame.
6) Why is trend analysis helpful in analyzing ratios.
Trend analysis shows changes in a particular ratio over time and allows one to she the changes that occur in profitability, asset utilization etc. over time.† This is even better when the trend analysis includes an analysis of trends within the industry.† As the industry may be subject to cyclical fluctuations.† Competitive pressures in the industry might change as might the general business environment.
7) Inflation can have significant effect on income statement and balance sheets, and therefore on the calculation of ratios.† Discuss the possible impact of inflation on the following ratios and explain the direction of the impact based on your assumptions.
8)What affect will disinflation following a highly inflationary period have on the reported income of the firm?
A great change in ratios will occur as expensive inventory is charged against softening prices.
9) Why might disinflation prove favorable to financial assets.
Softening in prices reduces the perceived need to hold real assets as a hedge against inflation.† Investment shift then to financial assets
10) Comparisons of income can be very difficult for two companies even though they sell the same products at equal volume. Why?
There are many different ways of recognizing data for financial reports which can affect the profit and other ratios for example;
1) Database Systems
Net Income and return on assets for the year.
Profit margin 6%
Net Income = 72000 (i.e. 6% of 1200000)
Return on investment = 14.4% = 72000/500000
2) Polly Ester Dress Shops
Annual Sales of 960000
Assets turned over 2.4 times per year.
Profit Margin 7%
Net income = 67200
Assets = 400000 = 960000/2.4
Return on Assets = 16.8% = 67200/400000
3) Billy Chrystal Stores
Asset turnover = 1.2
Sales = 6000000 (5000000 * 1.2)
Return on assets = 8%
Net income = 400000 (8% of 5000000)
Profit margin = 6.67% = 400000/6000000
4) Alpha Industries
Asset turnover 1.4 times
Return on total assets 8.4 %
Profit margin? = 8.4 /1.4 = 6%
Next year same level of assets
Asset turnover = 1.2† times
Profit margin = 7 %
Return on total assets? 1.2 * 7 = 8.4% so it is the same as before.
5) King Card Company
return on assets (investment ratio) = 12%
debt to total assets ratio 40%
return on equity = 12/(1-.4) = 12/.6 = 20%
If the firm had no debt then return on equity = 12%
Notice how debt increases the return on equity
6) Lollar Corpoaration Du pont method.
Profit Margin 5%
Return on Assets (investment) 13.5%
Asset turnover ratio. = 13.5/5 = 2.7
Debt to assets ratio 60%
Return on equity = 13.5/(1-.6) = 33.75
If debt to assets decrease to 40%
Return on equity = 13.5/(1-.4) = 22.5
7) Jerry Rice and Grain Stores
Profit margin 3.5%
Turn over on Assets = 2.5
Current liabilities 100000
Long term liabilities 300000
Return on equity
First Return on Assets = 2.5* 3.5 = 8.75%
Net profit = 4000000 * 0.035 = 140000
Assets = 1400000/0.0875 = 1600000
Debt/Assets = 400000/1600000 = .25%
Return on equity = 8.75/(1-0.25) = 11.67%
If total asset turnover goes to 3.0
Sales = 4800000
Profit margin same profit = 168000
Return on assets = 3 * 3.5 = 10.5
Assets = 168000/10.5 = 1600000
Return on equity = 10.5/0.75 = 14%
8) A firm
Sales 1.2 million
10% sales are cash
year end Accounts Receivable 180000
Average collection period?
Average daily credit sales = 1.2 * .9 /360 = 3000
Avg collection period = 180000/3000 = 60 days.
9) Chamberlain Corporation
Account receivable turnover = 12 times
Accounts receivable = 90000
Credit sales = 90000 * 12 = 1080000
Average daily credit sales = 3000
10) Bryan Corporation
Credits sales = .75 * 3040000 = 2280000
Current ratio = (280000 + 240000+ 50000) / (220000+ 80000) = 1.9
Quick ratio = (280000+ 50000) / (220000+80000) = 1.1
Debt to total assets ratio = (220000+80000+118000)/950000 = 0.44 or 44%
Asset turnover = 3040000/950000 = 3.2
Average daily credit sales = 2280000 / 360 = 6333.33
Average collection Period = 280000/6333.33 = 44.2
11) Lancaster Corporation.
Times interest earned = 60000/12000 = 5
Fixed charge coverage = 84000/36000 = 2.33
12) Jason Kidís Furniture
Times interest earned = 60000/5000 = 12
Fixed charge coverage = 110000/55000 = 2
Total assets = 160000
Profit Margin = 33000/200000 = 16.5%